Monday, July 27, 2020

Could Your Eating Problems Be a Specific Phobia of Vomiting

Could Your Eating Problems Be a Specific Phobia of Vomiting Phobias Types Print Could Your Eating Problems Be a Specific Phobia of Vomiting? Eating Problems Related to Specific Phobia of Vomiting (Emetophobia) By Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS facebook twitter linkedin Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, is a certified eating disorders expert and clinical psychologist who provides cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. Learn about our editorial policy Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on April 17, 2018 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on April 30, 2018  skynesher, Getty Images More in Phobias Types Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment In This Article Table of Contents Expand Symptoms and Diagnosis Relation to Other Disorders Relation to Eating Disorders Development Maintenance Treatment View All Back To Top Are you terrified of throwing up? Does this affect your eating? Have you been diagnosed with an eating disorder? Might your eating disorder really (or also) be a phobia? Just like fear of flying or fear of spiders, a fear of vomiting can be so strong that it becomes a phobia. The specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV), also referred to as emetophobia, is a serious clinical condition. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) categorizes it as a specific phobia, “other” subtype. SPOV involves an intense and irrational fear of vomiting and the avoidance of situations related to vomiting. It can look a lot like an eating disorder, and often co-occurs with one. Many people with a problematic fear of vomiting seek treatment with eating disorder therapists or at eating disorder programs. Unfortunately, it is believed that a number of people with SPOV are misdiagnosed as having an eating disorderâ€"one study in 2013 showed that many eating disorder specialists may not know about SPOV or recognize it when they see it. Specific phobia of vomiting has not been well researched. It affects more females than males and commonly develops in childhood or adolescence. The average sufferer is affected for 25 years before seeking treatment. Therapists generally regard SPOV as challenging to treat because of a high drop-out rate and a poor response to treatment. It can become one of the most impairing phobias because people with it come to avoid such a broad range of situations. Symptoms and Diagnosis There are different factors that may indicate that you have a specific phobia of vomiting. Sensations A core symptom of SPOV is frequent nausea, an unpleasant sensation related to the gastrointestinal system. People with SPOV feel nauseated more often than people without the phobia. Most people with SPOV report feeling nauseated every one to two days, often for more than an hour at a time. The experience of nausea appears to be closely related to the intensity of the fear that people feel. Those with SPOV who experience more nausea also seem to lose more weight. Thoughts If you have SPOV, you are horrified at the idea of vomiting. You may also dread losing control and being ill. When you feel sick, you may obsessively have the thought, “I am going to vomit,” with a strong belief that you will. You may fear yourself vomiting and others around you vomiting. Most people (47 percent) with vomit phobia primarily fear themselves vomiting, and to a lesser extent fear others vomiting. A smaller number (41 percent) equally fear themselves and others vomiting. Rarely do people with SPOV only or primarily fear others (and not themselves) vomiting. Vomiting in others may be feared primarily out of fear of contagion. Behaviors If you have SPOV you might engage in a range of behaviors to try to reduce your likelihood of vomiting. These may include physically scanning your body for sensations and indications that you might vomit. You might also engage in safety-seeking behaviors and avoidance behaviors that include checking food expiration dates, avoiding alcohol, and avoiding certain foods like meat and seafood. These preventative behaviors can consume a great deal of worry and time. Psychosocial Impairment People with SPOV suffer significant impairment. It may interfere with work when you may take days off because you think someone in your office is sick. It may affect your social life when you avoid social gatherings where you believe there is an increased risk of vomiting. You may also avoid contact with children when they are ill or sleep in another room if your partner is sick or has been drinking. Assessment Measures There are two validated measures to assess for SPOV: Specific Phobia of Vomiting Inventory (SPOVI)Emetophobia Questionnaire (EMETQ) Relation to Other Disorders Because specific fear of vomiting shares many features in common with other more well-understood illnesses, it has likely been under-recognized and misdiagnosed. Illness anxiety disorder (formerly hypochondriasis) shares many similarities with SPOV, including worrying, reassurance-seeking, and checking behavior about possible infections or food poisoning that could lead to vomiting. The symptoms of SPOV can look like the compulsive handwashing or sanitizing observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Both SPOV and panic disorder are characterized by an overfocus on and fear of bodily sensations, which in turn intensifies the sensations. Some patients with SPOV have some of the symptoms of social phobia, with fear of vomiting in social situations or of others judging them if they get sick. Relation to Eating Disorders While diagnoses of an eating disorder and SPOV can co-occur, there is limited research on how frequently this happens. In one study of eating behavior in people with SPOV, approximately one-third of participants restricted their food and engaged in abnormal eating behavior. Another study found that 80 percent of individuals with SPOV reported abnormal eating behavior and 61 percent reported food avoidance. In a third study, of 131 patients with SPOV, four were also diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. People with SPOV often restrict food to reduce the risk of vomiting. As such, they may look a lot like patients with eating disorders, specifically avoidant restrictive intake disorder (ARFID), which the DSM-5 defines as an eating disorder in which individuals fail to meet their nutritional needs but do not have the typical body image concerns of individuals with anorexia nervosa. People with SPOV can also meet criteria for ARFID when there is an extreme fear of vomiting and eating is restricted and any one of the following conditions are met: Significant weight lossSignificant nutritional deficiencyDependence on tube feedingPsychosocial impairment Over time and with dietary restriction, some people who have SPOV that meets ARFID criteria can also start to develop features of anorexia nervosa, such as weight and shape concern, negative body image, or the avoidance of calorically dense foods. It also appears likely that some individuals with SPOV may be misdiagnosed with anorexia due to eating-disordered attitudes and behaviors that are driven by phobic fears rather than eating psychopathology. When making a differential diagnosis clinicians must understand why a patient fears and avoids food: is it because of fear of weight gain or fear of vomiting? Development Phobias are believed to be caused by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. There are believed to be several predisposing factors for SPOV. People who develop a fear of vomiting appear to have a general vulnerability to anxiety. They may tend to express anxiety through somatic symptoms such as “butterflies in the stomach” or nausea. Finally, they may have high disgust sensitivity. Many phobias involve some learned fear that activates these predisposing factors. Some traumatic incident may have contributed to the phobia’s development. Many individuals with SPOV recall a triggering incident involving themselves or others vomiting. Some individuals recall no triggering incident; these may be cases of vicarious learning, for example reading about an incident of vomiting or hearing someone else talk about vomiting in a fearful way. Maintenance The more people pay attention to gastrointestinal symptoms, the more likely they can perceive nausea. Those who experience anxiety physically can catastrophically misinterpret the benign signs of digestion as an indicator of upcoming nausea. This leads to increased anxiety, which heightens nausea. This feeling can be mistaken for the warning sign that vomiting is imminent. This catastrophic misinterpretation serves to increase anxiety, and the vicious cycle continues. The more nausea a person feels, the more fear they have, the more hypervigilance, the greater nausea. Avoidance and safety behaviors also maintain the phobia. People with SPOV often avoid specific foods out of fear of vomiting. Commonly avoid foods include meat, poultry, seafood and shellfish, foreign meals, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables. They may restrict the amount of food to reduce sensations of fullness which they fear could lead to vomiting. They may also restrict eating food in certain contexts, such as food cooked by other people. People with vomiting phobia may come to avoid a broad spectrum of situations: Those they believe will increase their own risk of vomitingâ€"eating from salad bars or buffets, visiting people in the hospital, eating at restaurants, public toilets, traveling, boats and airplanes, going to an amusement park, or meeting ill peopleThose where they believe they may see someone vomitingâ€"events where guests drink alcohol, places where children playâ€" or where they fear they may vomit in the presence of othersPregnancyâ€"some have even chosen to terminate a pregnancy because of their fear of vomitingRecommended surgery It should be noted that most of these situations avoided would be associated with an extremely low risk of vomiting. As a result, people who avoid them fail to learn that these situations are not dangerous. People with SPOV develop safety behaviors they believe reduce their likelihood of vomiting. They may take antacids, wear rubber gloves, repeatedly check the sell by date and the freshness of food, wash their hands excessively, inordinately clean the kitchen area, and wash food excessively. They overestimate the efficacy of these measures in preventing vomiting. It is helpful for people with SPOV to understand that frequency of vomiting is not much different for people with SPOV than it is for people who do not have the phobia and do not practice avoidance and safety behaviors. In reality, vomiting is a rare occurrence. Treatment Research on treatment for SPOV is very limited, with only one published randomized controlled trial. cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most widely used approach for the treatment of SPOV and other phobias. Treatment must begin with a thorough assessment and a formulation that helps the patient to understand the processes that maintain the patient’s fear. The formulation also guides the selection of treatment targets. As with most phobias, exposure is a central aspect of the treatment. A key difference in the treatment of SPOV is that treatment does not usually include exposure to the exact situationâ€"that is, making oneself vomit. Induction of vomiting via an emetic is not considered practical or safe, particularly when done repeatedly. Also, a single exposure might not be sufficient to reduce the awfulness of vomiting. Treatment focuses instead on exposure to the sensations associated with vomiting and the situations that trigger a fear of vomiting. Psychoeducation CBT for SPOV usually begins with psychoeducation about vomiting phobia, including a cognitive model of anxiety emphasizing the interplay of cognitive, physical, and behavioral factors. Patients should be educated about factors that maintain the disorder and the importance of exposure in the treatment. You may be reassured to learn that: Vomiting is a normal and adaptive process, designed to save your life by ridding your body of something you have ingested that is contaminated or poisonous.All mammals except rats vomit (which is why rat poison is effective).You cannot prevent yourself from vomiting. It is a primitive reflex that cannot be inhibited.Nausea is only rarely an indication of vomiting.Food safety standards, refrigeration, and sanitation have substantially reduced the instance of vomiting in the developed world; one study found that most people can recall vomiting about four to six times over their lifetime. Exposure The treatment of emetophobia often includes exposure to the physical sensations central to the experience and maintenance of SPOV, such as nausea. Exposure to physical sensations involves inducing physiological symptoms that are similar to anxiety. For example, having a patient spin can often induce dizziness and sometimes nausea. Some CBT treatment models include imaginary rescripting of past aversive experiences of vomiting. Some therapists use exposure to videos of others vomiting. Sometimes patients are asked to fake vomit. In this exercise, they put a concoction of diced food in their mouth, kneel in front of the toilet, and spit into the toilet to simulate the texture and sounds of vomiting. Patients can also be exposed to a substance that looks or smells like vomit. In addition to exposure to physical sensations and to aspects of vomiting described above, treatment should include exposure to all foods and situations that have been avoided. This is often done in a hierarchical fashion, with progressively scarier situations approached over time. Situations can be combined. For example, a person may eat a fear food and then go on a rollercoaster. CBT treatment also includes discontinuing safety behaviors, such as wearing gloves and excessive cleaning. It also includes challenging anxiety-provoking thoughts. Although cognitive behavioral interventions would clearly be the focus, certain medications such as SSRIs might be helpful, particularly if there are other mood or anxiety symptoms.   Weight Restoration If the patient is at a low weight, then weight gain and restoration of normal patterns of eating in SPOV is an important treatment goal, just as it is in anorexia nervosa. Family-based treatment focused on nutritional restoration and exposure may be a good treatment choice for adolescents with SPOV needing to restore weight. A Word From Verywell It is common to feel reluctant about seeking help. If you (or a loved one) have a severe fear of vomiting, it is important to receive an assessment leading to an accurate diagnosis. Then you can begin the process of recovery.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Cruel World by Lynn Nicholas - 1292 Words

Reflective Journal Part A, Book Review, Cruel World by Lynn Nicholas This book is about the children of Europe during the Nazi reign and offers a comprehensive look at the way children were treated. Most of these children had their childhoods torn away from them by being exposed to horrors. The atrocities committed against some groups of children included sterilization, separation from families and being sent to concentration camps. I found that this book had a huge impact on me as I did not quite realise how bad life got during the Nazi era. I had always known that the Jews suffered greatly at the hands of the Nazis however that is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the huge suffering that European children in general went through in this era. The main argument of this book is to get across the horrors of the Nazi era and how they affected children. The book is a tribute to the millions of innocent victims of this terror and a way that their voices and stories can be heard. It almost seems like this book is intending to warn us of conflict but also to remind us that terrible things like this continue to happen today around the world because as Nicholas says â€Å"Even as World War II ended, new conflicts began and others have succeeded without cease, bringing horror and corruption, which stream like blood out of our televisions, to millions of children.† (Nicholas, 2005, p. 558) A strength of this book is that it does not just focus on one group of children butShow MoreRelatedPropaganda During Nazi Germany Essay3427 Words   |  14 Pageswas used to honour the German army(Moeller,2000,102) and to advocate â€Å"persistence and the importance of leadership†(Tegel,2007,p178) during the war years.Bismark(1940) and particularly Kolberg(1945),which was the last film made before the end of World War Two.The film was an appeal from Goebbels for complete sacrifice by the German people(ibid,p186) as well as to restore faith in Hilter by â€Å"celebrating the resistance of the fortress town to the invading Napoleonic armies,under the courageous leadershipRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesFeedback If you have questions related to this product, please contact our customer service department online at http:/ /247pearsoned.custhelp.com/. Acknowledgments In addition to the informal feedback that we have received from colleagues around the world, we would especially like to thank the following people who have formally reviewed material and provided valuable feedback, vital to the revision of this and previous editions: Richard Allan, University of Tennessee– Chattanooga Forrest F. Aven

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Yoga for Eye Sight Free Essays

The great master Swami Vivekananda said that there are four main streams of yoga:Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga. To use all these streams of yoga to build the personality. We are now going to focus on Eyesight Development or Eyesight Improvement. We will write a custom essay sample on Yoga for Eye Sight or any similar topic only for you Order Now In late 60s the TV came afresh in Bangalore city and everybody was so fascinated, particularly the children glued themselves to TV forgetting all their sports outside. Went on watching 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours and movies after movies and as expected it started happening in 5 or 6 years, 1972-73 we started seeing most of these children wearing very thick glasses. We felt too bad. We said can we solve this problem? Many people said that we are not going to allow our children to watch the TV. That is no solution. This is when we started developing yoga module. The specialised techniques that yoga prescribes for eyesight improvement were selected from various yoga techniques. The precautions we have to take, norms that we have to follow were taken care. So we developed this module, iintegrated yoga module for eyesight improvement. We started giving that in Yoga Camps. One week camp, 15 days camp, one month camp and we started documenting the result whether really it is useful or not. The results were very fascinating. When we have an average of 1000 or 1500 sstudents, we have found that the eyesight can improve by one Diapter for short sight sstudents with a practice of every day half an hour for one month. This iintegrated yoga module can bring such wonderful results. Practice for half an hour every day for one month, one Diaptor is going to reduce. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES – 2 8 | Yoga for Eye Sight Improvement When we continued children with -5, -6, -7 children were able to normalise their eyesight. Then we started taking up this. Initially we have short theory and then we go for the practice and what is the whole basis for the eyesight improvement that we are talking? Many people think that the accommodation power of the lens is going to change. No. It is Eye Ball Curvature. In short sight the image is falling too far in front of the Fovea. But why is that distortion taking place in the eye ball? This is because of the differential pull of the rectie muscles of the eye ball. So when we do yoga in which we handle the eye excercises to see that the muscles co-ordinate so cohesively that the eye ball starts becoming normal. How do we know it is going to become normal? One of our Opthalimic specialist Dr. Upadhyay in England, measured the eye ball curvature and after 15 days, after one month of yogic practices the eye ball curvature started getting normal. Such results prove that yoga brings in normalisation and it is these techniques that we have used. Trataka is the specialised practice that yoga prescribes. It is one of the six kriyas. Kriyas are essentially meant for clearnsing and to strengthen the nerves which connect the eyes to the brain which handles the different muscles and calming down of the mind, silencing of the mind, slowing down of the breath, does wonders. Therefore in this module we are going to use some Asanas, special breathing practices and mainly the Trataka and the meditation which help the people develop their eyesight. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES – 2 Yoga for Eye Sight Improvement Let us try to understand the structure and functions of the eye so that we can go ahead to understand how Yoga works in improving our eyesight. We all have two eyes. A resting eye is designed for distant vision. Near work always involve lot of work on the small, little muscles of the eye. Each eye is comparable to a pholographic camera. Just like the camera has a diaphragm and an aperture, our eye also has a dark highly pigmented diaphragm called Iris. This Iris cuts off all the light from entering into the eye ball and in the centre of the diaphragm is the little transparen’t hole called the Pupil. The diaphragm is called the Iris, the apercher is called the pupil. Through this pupil only nature allows the light to pass through. What are the functions of a good camera? It should have a very good powerful lens so that it can have a very clear image at its focal point and it should be able to adjust very perfectly to the light conditions and also to the distance of the object from the film of the Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES – 2 10 | Yoga for Eye Sight Improvement camera. Our eye although is comparable to a camera, is not having a shape of a camera. How to cite Yoga for Eye Sight, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Transportation In The 19th Century During The First Half Of The 19th C

Transportation in the 19th Century During the first half of the 19th century, improvements in transportation developed rather quickly. Roads, steamboats, canals, and railroads all had a positive effect on the American economy. They also provided for a more diverse United States by allowing more products to be sold in new areas of the country and by opening new markets. Copied from ideas begun in England and France, American roads were being built everywhere. In an attempt to make money, private investors financed many turnpikes, expecting to profit from the tolls collected. Although they did not make as much money as expected, these roads made it possible for cheaper (not cheap) domestic transportation of goods. It still cost more to transport a ton of freight a few miles over land than it did to send it across the Atlantic Ocean. But because of turnpikes, for the first time, goods were able to make it over the formidable Appalachian mountains. The steamboat was the first economic al means of inland transport. It was faster and cheaper then the rafts used before them. Additionally, the steamboats made it possible to travel back up the Mississippi, allowing farmers and lumbermen to come down by raft, and travel home in the luxurious comfort of a steamboat after selling their goods. This also made the northwest less self-dependent because it was now able to purchase southern goods. While steamboats sparked the economy on the western frontier, canals became increasingly popular on the east coast. Although expensive ($25,000 per mile), and difficult to build, canals were an important source for those farmers and merchants who needed a cheap method of inland transportation. The water allowed horses, once only able to pull a ton of materials, to now pull over a hundred tons with the same amount of work. These canals were not only economical for exporters, but also for the state. Tolls alone collected from the Erie Canal had, by 1825, already paid for the entire p roject ($7,000,000), and now was making a substantial amount of profit. Even though it had not totally expanded yet, the cheapest, most economical method of transportation was the railroad. Speed, durability, and safety all contributed to the success of it. State legislatures and the national government all provided aid to the railroad companies by decreased the tax on rail iron. During this time period, manufacturing also boomed. New ideas and inventions made it faster to produce products. However, it is because of these new modes of transportation that this was ever able to occur. The cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney, would never have been able to develop fully if the transportation system did not make it easy to obtain cotton from the south. With these new technological breakthroughs, American economic growth was significantly increased. By allowing cheaper importation and exportation of goods, manufacturers were able to produce more of these products. Also, it opened new m arkets to different places. In the northwest, where coffee was an expensive luxury (costing almost seventeen cents per pound), it was now a common item. The steamboat reduced the price by over thirteen cents. Also, our new transportation system helped other regions work together. And aside from material items, our country benefited economically from tourism. Any tourist to the New York area would not miss "The Great Western Canal." So although manufacturing did have a significant role in developing the American economy, it is because of transportation that manufacturing could have ever improved. Transportation In The 19th Century During The First Half Of The 19th C Transportation in the 19th Century During the first half of the 19th century, improvements in transportation developed rather quickly. Roads, steamboats, canals, and railroads all had a positive effect on the American economy. They also provided for a more diverse United States by allowing more products to be sold in new areas of the country and by opening new markets. Copied from ideas begun in England and France, American roads were being built everywhere. In an attempt to make money, private investors financed many turnpikes, expecting to profit from the tolls collected. Although they did not make as much money as expected, these roads made it possible for cheaper (not cheap) domestic transportation of goods. It still cost more to transport a ton of freight a few miles over land than it did to send it across the Atlantic Ocean. But because of turnpikes, for the first time, goods were able to make it over the formidable Appalachian mountains. The steamboat was the first economic al means of inland transport. It was faster and cheaper then the rafts used before them. Additionally, the steamboats made it possible to travel back up the Mississippi, allowing farmers and lumbermen to come down by raft, and travel home in the luxurious comfort of a steamboat after selling their goods. This also made the northwest less self-dependent because it was now able to purchase southern goods. While steamboats sparked the economy on the western frontier, canals became increasingly popular on the east coast. Although expensive ($25,000 per mile), and difficult to build, canals were an important source for those farmers and merchants who needed a cheap method of inland transportation. The water allowed horses, once only able to pull a ton of materials, to now pull over a hundred tons with the same amount of work. These canals were not only economical for exporters, but also for the state. Tolls alone collected from the Erie Canal had, by 1825, already paid for the entire p roject ($7,000,000), and now was making a substantial amount of profit. Even though it had not totally expanded yet, the cheapest, most economical method of transportation was the railroad. Speed, durability, and safety all contributed to the success of it. State legislatures and the national government all provided aid to the railroad companies by decreased the tax on rail iron. During this time period, manufacturing also boomed. New ideas and inventions made it faster to produce products. However, it is because of these new modes of transportation that this was ever able to occur. The cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney, would never have been able to develop fully if the transportation system did not make it easy to obtain cotton from the south. With these new technological breakthroughs, American economic growth was significantly increased. By allowing cheaper importation and exportation of goods, manufacturers were able to produce more of these products. Also, it opened new m arkets to different places. In the northwest, where coffee was an expensive luxury (costing almost seventeen cents per pound), it was now a common item. The steamboat reduced the price by over thirteen cents. Also, our new transportation system helped other regions work together. And aside from material items, our country benefited economically from tourism. Any tourist to the New York area would not miss "The Great Western Canal." So although manufacturing did have a significant role in developing the American economy, it is because of transportation that manufacturing could have ever improved.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Innocence Compassion and some Crazy Cliff essays

Innocence Compassion and some Crazy Cliff essays A novel, which has gained literary recognition worldwide, scrutiny to the point of censorship and has established a following among adolescents, The Catcher in the Rye is in its entirety a unique connotation of the preservation of innocence and the pursuit of compassion. With certain elegance the writer J.D. Salinger, substantiates the growth and perils, which lie between childhood and adulthood. Embellishing the differentiation between innocence and squalor in the grasps of society. The bridge that lies between these contrasting themes are personified through the novels protagonist, Holden Caul-field and his visualization of a cliff, which depicts a dividing point between the evident beginning and end. The connection, which binds this gap in reality, was made clear through a new found compassion, consummating Holdens place in society through the realization of his surroundings from which he successfully crosses over. Focusing on the rebellious and confused actuality of adolescents stuck between the innocence of childhood and the corruptness of the adult world, this novel strikes a cord, which most adolescents can relate. The essence of the story The Catcher in the Rye follows the forty-eight hour escapade of sixteen-year-old Holden Caulfield, told through first person narration. After his expulsion from Pency, a fashionable prep school, the lat-est in a long line of expulsions, Holden has a few confrontations with his fellow students and leaves shortly after to return to his hometown, New York City. In the heart of New York City, Holden spends the following two days hiding out to rest before confronting his parents with the news. During his adventures in the city he tries to renew some old acquaintances, find his significance in the adult world, and come to grips with the head-aches he has been having lately. Eventually, Holden sneaks home to visit his sister Phoebe, because alone on the streets he feels as...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Spelling and Word Origin

Spelling and Word Origin Spelling and Word Origin Spelling and Word Origin By Maeve Maddox A reader wonders how knowing a word’s origin helps spelling bee contestants arrive at the correct spelling: Recently, I was watching [a spelling bee] competition and students were asking about the origin of a spelling like Latin, French, Greek, Dutch, Italian etc. and were guessing correct spellings. How is it possible to get correct spelling from the origin of a word? One of the greatest strengths of English is its huge vocabulary, much of it borrowed from other languages. Because different languages have different spelling conventions, knowing an English word’s foreign origin can sometimes–not always–provide assistance in spelling it. English is spoken with about 46 speech sounds. Some of the sounds, like /b/ and /p/ are always represented by the same letter. Other sounds, like /f/ and /s/, may be represented by different letters or combinations of letters. For example, the sound /f/ may be spelled with the letter f as in reflex, or with the combination ph as in gramophone. The sound /s/ may be represented by the letter s, the letter c, or the combination sc, as in instant, cigar, and abscess. The sound /k/ may be spelled with the letters k, c or the combinations ck and ch: kitten, cat, luck, archetype. A spelling bee contestant’s first encounter with a word is its pronunciation. Knowing how sounds are spelled in the parent language can lead a speller to the correct combination of letters used to spell it in English. Take for example, the words candidate and chronology. Both begin with the /k/ sound. Knowing that candidate entered the language from Latin tells the speller to spell the sound with the letter c; knowing that chronology comes from Greek is a clue that the /k/ sound is spelled with the combination ch. Here are a few of the spelling clues offered by etymology with words of Latin and Greek origin: Latin canine, lactate, abduct The /k/ sound is usually represented by the letter c in a word of Latin origin. abscess, ascend, eviscerate The internal /s/ sound is often spelled sc in a word of Latin origin. NOTE: one speech sound used to speak English is called the schwa. The schwa is an indeterminate vowel sound that may be represented by any of the vowel letters a, e, i/y, o, or u. For example, the schwa sound is represented in the following words by the letters in boldface: America, synthesis, decimal, syringe, offend, circus, supply. When a schwa sound follows the /s/ sound in a word of Latin origin, the /s/ sound is often represented by the letter c, as in necessary. However, if the schwa sound connects two Latin elements, it is often spelled with the letter i, as in carnivore. Greek amygdala, dyslogia, symbiosis The short i sound is often represented by the letter y in a word of Greek origin. anthropomorphic, philander, graphology The /f/ sound is often represented by ph in a word of Greek origin. rhinovirus, hemorrhage, rheumatism The /r/ sound is often represented by rh in a word of Greek origin. anarchy, bacchanal, chronometry The /k/ sound is often represented by ch in a word of Greek origin. xylophone, Xena, xenophopia The /z/ sound is often represented by x in a word of Greek origin. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Fly, Flew, (has) FlownFlied?50 Nautical Terms in General Use8 Great Podcasts for Writers and Book Authors